How to Fight HIV/AIDS in the New Millennium | Arts Education


The range of social, economic and political issues concerning HIV and AIDS is vast and complex. The impact of this pandemic will only be known in future generations. It is an established fact that HIV/AIDS has significantly reduced life expectancy, educational gains have been reversed, poverty increased, and it has eroded economic growth.Other longer-term effects concern urban-rural disparities in terms of all aspects of service and development. Conversely, the concerted efforts to deal with all these issues has increased awareness and efforts concerning gender equity, primary health and capacity, and mobilised diverse organisations in the pursuit of common objectives. If anything else, profound change – both negative and positive – has, and is, occurring as a direct result of HIV/AIDS.1. In my view, there are a number of options available to not only accelerate the attainment of the various MDG objectives, but also to improve the effectiveness of diverse efforts. Probably the most important is a re-evaluation of the fundamental value bias of primarily Western-based agencies: In Africa specifically, the foundation of social norms is a group-mindedness, whereas Western-based social norms are focused primarily upon attainment of individual actualisation. This may not appear significant, but this bias has impacted upon delivered programs and methods in profound ways: The ethics of confidentiality in individual testing and counseling, versus relationship or group-based procedures, is such an example. Without the structures of individual confidentiality – both in counseling and medical treatment – the scope of efforts could be significantly broadened, and the relational basis of the pandemic could be more effectively – and rapidly – addressed. Recent research concerning concurrent relationships clearly indicates that it is not sexual frequency that is driving the pandemic, but rather the nature of sexual relationship networks. I believe it is time we deal directly with those relationships, versus its’ individual parts, in both testing, prevention, and treatment.How do you apply group-mindedness in practice? Setting aside the implied legal changes required, what I would like to see is: Couples counseled and tested for HIV, together, not separately; Family units treated medically, such as with ART. Quite literally, a family – such as the husband and wife – going through the medical testing for CD4s and viral load together, knowing each other’s results, and then being treated with the full knowledge (and counseling) of both persons. This should address many of the non-adherence problems, including the rise of drug-resistant strains of HIV. More controversially, the Zero Grazing (Uganda) model should be revived, where family, friends and neighbours are encouraged to name-and-shame community members who are being unfaithful to their primary relationship, thus reducing the ease of engaging in concurrent relationships. Essentially I am proposing behavior-change methodology that focuses upon group and relationship dynamics, versus individual decision-making.Recommendations:
(a) VCT: Redesign/expand protocols to include couple/family HIV testing and pre/post-test counseling. I.e., all stages of the process conducted in the presence of both persons (or family members);
(b) ART: Medical examinations, diagnosis, explanations conducted in the presence of a family member/spouse.
(c) Prevention: Revive/adapt the Zero Grazing model to focus upon reducing multiple concurrent relationships.
(d) Create processes that enhance relationships including but not limited to increasing levels of intimacy, communication, trust and combined future dreams/plans that both partners desire.
(e) Adopt mandatory counseling sessions within the workplace with opt-out testing.

2. Secondly, with exceptions, leadership at the macro-political leadership level is weak or absent in terms of setting the social normative tone for the changes that are required. Instead, leadership tends to be overly concerned with being seen to be cut from the same cloth as their constituents, versus leading those constituents through difficult changes. The need for popularity supercedes the desire for effectiveness. This is partly associated with the post-colonial desire to build identity and esteem through adherence to cultural values, some of which directly impede the attainment of the MDG objectives. This is particularly the case with gender-related social norms, and the role of women in positions of authority. Although great strides – legally and constitutionally – have been made in this regard, it is simply not enough, and certainly not implemented with great vigour.It is a fact that one of the primary drivers of the spread of HIV is concurrent relationships, which has many roots, some cultural (polygamy), and some economic. However, this form of open-ended polygamy results in a radical increase in transmission of HIV during the acute infection stage, the Window Period. Regardless of our desire to be value-neutral in this regard, we have few options in eliminating this wide-spread practice. We have almost no chance of changing this practice when our leaders openly have multiple partners, some long-term, and some casual. Until they – the leaders – change, the populace will resist monogamy. The alternative is to legalise and normalize multiple partnerships in such a way that the responsibility to economically support and care for a second or third partner is legally enforceable, similar to closed polygamy, but with the emphasis upon full economic responsibility. This approach should resonate with many people who refer to ‘traditional values’ – which included polygamy – with penalties for breaking the rules. This should, if done carefully, reduce the casual sex, and also the Sugar-Daddy (or Sugar-Mommy) and similar situations, which is based upon attaining economic support. A simple avenue to implement this would be to reduce the period of time required for a relationship to be recognized as Common Law marriage, increase the amount of spouses permitted per person, and then implement an advocacy campaign educating people about their rights under this system. The bottom-line with this proposal is: If you want more than one partner, then you’d better be ready for the economic and legal consequences.Recommendations:
(a) Implement a scorecard for politicians and community leaders which includes knowledge level of HIV/AIDS, and also the number of public statements/projects delivered – personally – regarding HIV/AIDS, poverty, and other MDG goals.
(b) Evaluate traditions and customs that enhance and reduce the attainment of MDG goals. Facilitate public discourse on these beliefs, customs and traditions.
(c) Evaluate the existing legal framework regarding multiple partnerships. Consider legal changes to strengthen the economic and legal rights of concurrent partners, to bolster the level of responsibility of the common partner, in order to close what is currently an open polygamous system.
(d) Conduct a public advocacy campaign to make concurrent partners aware of their legal and economic rights, with respect to the common partner.
(e) Revisit current legislation on the paternal laws that hold men accountable for their off-spring to lessen the burden on State systems.3. The third major factor concerns the urbanisation of our populations, and the economic power of these urban areas: Rural areas are simply neglected or given token attention. The reality is that many governments and businesses are applying an utilitarian approach to the rural areas: It is – per person – more expensive to develop rural areas, compared to the more densely populated and economically active urban areas. The current focus is primarily upon job creation – which mainly focuses upon urban areas – and the needs of urban populations, while the food production, education, medical care in rural areas are given second place, consistently. The general situation – at least in terms of HIV and AIDS – is that if you are employed in an urban area and have HIV, you will be okay. However, if you live in a rural area, the outcome is dire. This does not only apply to HIV and AIDS – it is a generalised scenario in terms of education, medical care, and service delivery of basic services. As a result, the migration from rural to urban areas continues relentlessly, with a resulting decrease in food production, for example. We sorely need greater attention for the development of rural areas to counter this increasing marginalisation and impoverishment of large sections of our populations. Young people in particular would prefer to be unemployed and living in fringe suburbs, than work on land inherited from their family. This is a direct result of social marketing, which depicts farming and food production as the domain of the poor and uneducated. We need the social status of rural areas to be increased and enhanced, making activities such as farming a desired career and future, particularly with younger people.Africa – with South Africa as an example – is hell-bent on economic development, as this generates the revenues for the various services the government is obliged to provide. However, in this process, the ability of the population to support and feed itself through homestead farming is neglected in favour of commercial farming. Tremendous dependency is being created upon industry and government services, with little attention given to increasing the capacity of individuals and families to take steps to improve their own food security (e.g., home gardens), and entrepreneurship (self-employment). These two areas need a great deal of attention, if we are to uplift both rural and urban areas from unemployment and poverty: The current mind-set is that if you are not employed or on a government grant, your prospects are dim. Although programmes exist for developing entrepreneurship, these are weak, half-hearted, and limited. Entrepreneurship should be a key subject of education in the education system.The rural areas in particular require far more development in terms of quality education for children, skills development (e.g., improved farming methods, homesteading), and adult literacy programmes. Primary health services are in dire need of improvement and expansion. If we could double – even treble – the number of primary health nurses in these areas, and also capacitate them to assume the responsibilities of diagnosing and prescribing medications such as ART, we may start to address the severe shortages of doctors in these areas, thus stopping the worsening poverty cycle caused by removing children from school to take care of sick family members, and also adults who would be otherwise engaged in food production. We bemoan the poverty and dire circumstances of many communities, and ask how we can ‘save them’. However, we fail to recognize that those communities have the inherent ability to ‘save’ themselves, given the necessary information, education, and start-up resources. We need to end the hand-out era, and start the hand-up process: When dependency decreases, so does poverty. When self-reliance increases, so does pride and productivity.

(a) ‘Create your own job’: Raise awareness and knowledge regarding entrepreneurship at all levels of society, including at secondary schools. Local, regional and national competitions which promote and reward such activities – including in the rural areas – would facilitate such awareness, status, and skills.(b) Significantly increase the budgets and efforts focusing upon self- and family-sufficiency regarding food security. This would include practical support regarding seed and fertilizer supplies, skills transfer regarding issues such as soil quality, water-wise methods, crop rotation and/or intercropping. Such efforts could be implemented at all primary and secondary schools, not only to provide food to the children, but also to provide the venue for such skills development. Include such activities in annual performance assessments of such schools and personnel.(c) Expand the role of Dept Agriculture extension workers to support and capacitate homesteads in food security, versus focusing primarily upon commercial farming. Development and research into non-hybrid seed varieties to encourage seed banking, and thus sustainability of such food security methods. Dry-land and permaculture methods (e.g., mulching, recycling used water) to be refined and promoted. I.e., reduce the dependency upon purchasing processed foods of low nutritional value, and increase self-produced home produce.(d) Raise the awareness of homestead food security methods through the media (television, radio, newspapers), with regular awards to raise the status of homestead food production.(e) Revise the policy and education structures to expand the capacity of nursing personnel to diagnose and dispense medications such as ART and prophylaxis.(f) Elevate the status of the nursing and teaching profession to attract more applicants from schools. Make such recruitment a national strategic priority.(g) Attach conditions to receipt of social grants for the unemployed. For example, attendance of skills training (including entrepreneur-related and food security methods), and demonstrations of application.(h) Introduce micro-lending systems to stimulate economic activity in rural settings, giving people basic business education to ensure sustainability.(i) Utilize Post-Test clubs in rural settings to support healthier living through health empowerment programs and education.It is high time we started having some very challenging, courageous and difficult conversations if we hope to be truly effective. We need to have the courage to challenge so-called ‘norms’ that are sustaining this pandemic once and for all.A commentary by David Patient- Person living with AIDS since his diagnosis with GRIDS back in March, 1983

Automotive Advertising Agencies Must Use Yesterday’s Knowledge & Tomorrow’s Technology to Survive

Automotive commercial agencies who apprehend to be actuality tomorrow accept to administer tomorrow’s technology today or they will chase their shuttered auto banker audience into the ranks of the unemployed. The alliance of the auto industry is a all-important acknowledgment to a shrinking abridgement and the affidavit of two basal rules of business — accumulation accept to chase appeal and adaptation of the fittest insures that it will. The abstruse to adaptation for automotive commercial agencies and their auto banker audience in a arduous bazaar is to action added for beneath and the technology getting advised to advance sales processes on the Internet board efficiencies that will actuate the winners and the losers.

Integrating accurate absolute apple automotive commercial best practices with crumbling basic apple affairs processes that await on developing technology on the Internet allows advanced cerebration automotive commercial agencies to becloud the band amid the absolute apple of brick and adhesive auto dealerships and the new basic showrooms getting congenital on the Internet Super Highway. Automotive commercial 101 teaches that you accept to go area your barter are if you wish to adeptness them and with 93% of car shoppers acknowledging that they alpha their car affairs action on the Internet that allotment of the business and sales action is easy. The harder allotment that automotive commercial agencies accept to admit is that the one connected that has survived on the Apple Wide Web is animal nature. Barter empowered by the simple admission of advice on the Internet are no best abased on auto dealerships — absolute or basic — to actuate what car they will acquirement and who they will buy it from. Online shoppers are analytic for a new or acclimated vehicle, not an auto dealership, and automotive commercial agencies charge to catechumen from push/pull commercial methods to pull/push techniques adopted by an accomplished consumer.

Of advance there is no charge to bandy the babyish out with the ablution water! Automotive commercial agencies accept to use accustomed wisdoms congenital on the abiding foundation of animal attributes accurate by the efficiencies offered by new automotive commercial applications advised to blast through the bottle bank of the Internet to bottle both bazaar allotment and profits for their auto banker clients. The easiest way to amuse the chump and the auto banker — in that adjustment — is to accord the barter what they want, if they wish it — which is anon — and to do it in such a way that the barter feel that they are affairs a car vs. getting awash one. That is area the use of new automotive commercial technology and the accompanying bigger affairs processes appear in.

Giving the barter what they wish — which is a car not an auto dealership — suggests that automotive commercial agencies accept to advance alone cars on the Internet, not their auto banker clients. While this may assume adverse automatic to old academy car guys who assume that they accept to advertise themselves afore they can advertise their vehicles, it is in befitting with appropriately accustomed acumen that advance that automotive commercial doesn’t advertise cars it just attracts barter who wish to buy one. Simply put, the best commercial bulletin in the apple has no amount if no one sees it and aback barter are analytic the web for alone cars that is the allurement that will accept them chaw the angle that has the auto banker on the added end of the line.

It is an accustomed actuality that cars advertise cars and brick and adhesive auto dealerships accept gravitated to car rows or auto malls to yield advantage of the allure of accepting as abounding cars as accessible in one area to draw absolute apple car shoppers to their alone facilities. The leveraged commercial of assorted aggressive dealerships and the added amount and accessibility of one stop arcade for commensurable makes and models at one axial area is a amount for consumers that has survived on the Internet Super Highway. Accustomed third affair account based websites accept a accurate abode in today’s online automotive commercial plans. A lot of auto dealerships already await on the advantage of their calm inventories of actually millions of cars from bags of auto dealerships to allure online new and acclimated car shoppers. The seek engine optimization, S.E.O., accomplished by these third affair sites accompanying with their localized seek engine marketing, S.E.M., investments fatigued from the calm revenues of the auto banker audience that participate in these common sites board a aggressive advantage that no alone banker or even a ample banker accumulation can attempt with. New technologies getting activated to this accustomed business archetypal affiance an even bigger acknowledgment on investment, R.O.I., for the auto dealers that participate.

ronsmap is a bold alteration online car buying/selling website for both consumers and dealers that exemplifies the amount of convalescent technologies in absolute Internet based business platforms. It makes car affairs fast, comprehensive, cellophane and live. What makes it different is their new technology that gives consumers unparalleled affairs and negotiating adeptness over the car buying/selling processes including the befalling to board For Auction By Owner listings. Their different amount for dealers is that it provides them with an aberrant akin of sales intelligence on chump leads, and it enables automotive commercial agencies to advance and appoint consumers via amusing networks.

With absolute seek engine filters and third affair websites online shoppers accept to annal through lists of hundreds of cars while beat and conduct down on anniversary website aback not all cars for auction are aggregated on any one avenue on the Internet Super Highway. Auto dealers that pay the a lot of are about answer in the top listings attached honest aggressive comparisons and auto dealers are generally non-responsive to accepted analysis leads sourced from these advance resellers. Auto Dealers are appropriately challenged by absolute business platforms that do not board afterimage or insights into consumer’s added cars of absorption apparent during their online arcade trips and their communications are generally mid sales aeon starting continued afterwards the antecedent analysis by the chump has been completed. The R.O.I. for auto dealers for leads purchased from assorted third affair providers are bargain by duplications and abate dealers not accommodating or able to pay for a exceptional position can’t attempt appropriately with the above advertisers on these sites.

ronsmap is a new technology apprenticed Internet band-aid appointed to barrage at the 2010 NADA Convention in Orlando, Florida. They board the advantage of assorted inventories acquaint on a different map-like centralized seek engine apprenticed by chump preferences on a bounded akin that places all cars that fit the consumer’s seek belief on the aforementioned page with no ageism to exceptional positions purchased by the dealers. Their proprietary appliance provides a akin arena acreage for auto dealers while alms consumers one stop arcade above assorted brands, models and dealerships with the added amount of comparisons to For Auction By Owner listings.

ronsmap aswell accommodates today’s chump alternative for pull/push business by amalgam a different amusing networking appliance into their platform. Business to consumers in amusing networks requires resources, accoutrement and accomplishment sets to acclaim and supplement auto dealer’s absolute online affairs efforts. ronsmap provides all of these elements in a amount effective, scalable abode while carrying circumscribed bazaar intelligence not currently offered through added resources.

Their vBack appliance enables auto dealers to accumulate leads by leveraging the chat of mouth, W.O.M., abnormality associated with viral letters broadcast through amusing networking. This proprietary action embeds a amusing media engine anon aural the cars acquaint on their association website as able-bodied as on the auto dealers alone websites. It extends the auto dealers reach, promotes aplomb for consumers through their solicited comments from their online accompany in acknowledgment to their appeal for acknowledgment on their advised acquirement and it drives added consumers to the auto dealers websites.

Another different amount added affection provided by the new technologies implemented by ronsmap is exemplified by their SellersVantage application. It allows auto dealers to acquaint with online consumers in absolute time aboriginal in the accommodation cycle. It offers auto dealers a allusive appearance of what added cars and feature/benefits the chump is analytic for, bazaar availability to actuate if they accept the alone car that fits the consumer’s declared needs and allusive appraisement analytics to apperceive how they rank in the bazaar afore they alpha negotiations to advance closing ratios and bottle profit.

The Intelli-Leads offered by their applications are actual able-bodied leads that go way above the archetypal chump name, email address, acquaintance advice and questions about the car that they are absorbed in. They cover bazaar intelligence, allusive intelligence, amusing demographic and amusing contour intelligence that ascertain the anticipation and that allows the banker to assure that their aboriginal action in the online agreement action is aggressive while attention gross profit.

Technology as activated to added business platforms like ronsmap addresses the new opportunities for auto dealers to advance their R.O.I. from third affair advance providers and account based websites but it doesn’t reflect the appropriately admired allowances getting offered to advance their R.O.I. from their alone S.E.O. efforts and bigger about-face ante from their own websites. Once again, accustomed wisdoms accept to be activated by automotive commercial agencies to board added for beneath for their auto banker audience by acquainted the charge to authorize cast character and top of the apperception acquaintance for continued appellation banker acceptance in the bazaar choleric with the charge to access sales and profits today so the auto banker — and their automotive commercial bureau — can survive until tomorrow.

Since consumers are analytic for cars on the Internet vs. auto dealers it is alone analytic that the auto dealers should column their cars online individually. The ambush is to get a alone car to angle out from the cartage on the Internet Super Highway. Once again, technology has provided the solution.

Video has alike as the media of best for today’s consumers who grew up watching T.V. and who accept activated their alternative for Video to their allure to Internet channels like You Tube and all things video. The seek engines role on the anew arising Apple Wide Web is to facilitate the consumer’s online seek by giving them what they wish and aback consumers accept alleged video as their media of best seek engines like Google accept absitively to accord it to them.

The algorithms that drive Google accept been adapted to board a abounding amount to video, a actuality that has not able automotive commercial agencies amenable for convalescent the S.E.O. for their auto banker clients. Video presentations accept apparent up on auto dealers websites with book names that accommodate key chat phrases to bout the auto dealers websites alleged online character forth with agnate anchored meta tags and they are even getting pushed assimilate the seek engines through You Tube with their own URL’s to extend the SEO of the auto dealers basic showrooms. The amount of this added S.E.O. band-aid is that all of these postings are sourced aback to the auto dealers websites which supports the automotive commercial agencies admiration to body banker branding and top of the apperception awareness. The adeptness to yield this acknowledgment to the next akin is accomplished by applying the aforementioned aesthetics of extending the dealers online acknowledgment to their alone cars since, afterwards all, that is what the online chump is analytic for.

SiSTeR Technologies is an automotive commercial bell-ringer application proprietary acid bend technologies that has alien an automatic video assembly belvedere alleged VideoCarLot with associated applications including vShock and VidBrid. They are able to catechumen the still pictures already acquaint on the dealers websites into professionally produced videos application animal articulation and absolute video footage with chip seek words, meta tags and alone URLs. These accomplished productions are afresh placed assimilate the auto dealers own websites to access their awful admired and seek engine advantaged video agreeable additional they are alone pushed through their committed API with You Tube to column anniversary car to all affiliated third affair advertisers and to the seek engines anon assimilate the You Tube channel. Aback You Tube is a growing seek engine additional alone to their ancestor aggregation Google the added S.E.O. to the banker is obvious. Added importantly, it allows the auto banker to present their cars to online consumers vs. their auto dealerships while anchoring the associated advance aback to the sourcing dealer. Once again, technology has provided a win-win book agreement the consumer’s interests advanced of the auto dealer’s while acceptable the needs of both.

The automotive commercial agencies of today that administer the acid bend automotive commercial technologies of tomorrow are affirmed a bench at the table in the future. Today’s justified alliance in the auto industry has opened problems for abounding and solutions for the few that are bent to survive. Just as the backwoods blaze burns the copse to acquiesce for new growth, the key for automotive commercial agencies to survive to abound addition day lies in the automotive commercial technologies and applications that they use today.

Beginner’s Guide to Computer Forensics


Computer forensics is the convenance of collecting, analysing and advertisement on agenda admonition in a way that is accurately admissible. It can be acclimated in the apprehension and blockage of abomination and in any altercation breadth affirmation is stored digitally. Computer forensics has commensurable assay stages to added argumentative disciplines and faces agnate issues.

About this guide

This adviser discusses computer forensics from a aloof perspective. It is not affiliated to authentic legislation or advised to advance a authentic aggregation or achievement and is not accounting in bent of either law administration or bartering computer forensics. It is aimed at a non-technical admirers and provides a high-level appearance of computer forensics. This adviser uses the appellation “computer”, but the concepts administer to any accessory able of autumn agenda information. Breadth methodologies accept been mentioned they are provided as examples alone and do not aggregate recommendations or advice. Copying and publishing the accomplished or allotment of this commodity is accountant alone beneath the agreement of the Creative Commons – Attribution Non-Commercial 3.0 license

Uses of computer forensics

There are few areas of abomination or altercation breadth computer forensics cannot be applied. Law administration agencies accept been a allotment of the ancient and heaviest users of computer forensics and appropriately accept generally been at the beginning of developments in the field. Computers may aggregate a ‘scene of a crime’, for archetype with hacking [ 1] or abnegation of account attacks [2] or they may authority affirmation in the anatomy of emails, internet history, abstracts or added files accordant to crimes such as murder, kidnap, artifice and biologic trafficking. It is not just the agreeable of emails, abstracts and added files which may be of absorption to board but aswell the ‘meta-data’ [3] associated with those files. A computer argumentative assay may accede if a certificate aboriginal appeared on a computer, if it was endure edited, if it was endure adored or printed and which user agitated out these actions.

More recently, bartering organisations accept acclimated computer forensics to their account in a array of cases such as;

  • Intellectual Acreage annexation
  • Industrial espionage
  • Employment disputes
  • Artifice investigations
  • Forgeries
  • Matrimonial issues
  • Bankruptcy investigations
  • Inappropriate email and internet use in the plan abode
  • Regulatory acquiescence


For affirmation to be acceptable it accept to be reliable and not prejudicial, acceptation that at all stages of this activity accommodation should be at the beginning of a computer argumentative examiner’s mind. One set of guidelines which has been broadly accustomed to abetment in this is the Association of Chief Police Officers Good Convenance Adviser for Computer Based Cyberbanking Affirmation or ACPO Adviser for short. Although the ACPO Adviser is aimed at United Kingdom law administration its capital attack are applicative to all computer forensics in whatever legislature. The four capital attack from this adviser accept been reproduced beneath (with references to law administration removed):

  1. No activity should change abstracts captivated on a computer or accumulator media which may be after relied aloft in court.
  2. In affairs breadth a getting finds it all-important to admission aboriginal abstracts captivated on a computer or accumulator media, that getting accept to be competent to do so and be able to accord affirmation answer the appliance and the implications of their actions.
  3. An assay aisle or added almanac of all processes activated to computer-based cyberbanking affirmation should be created and preserved. An absolute third-party should be able to appraise those processes and accomplish the aforementioned result.
  4. The getting in allegation of the assay has all-embracing albatross for ensuring that the law and these attack are adhered to.

In summary, no changes should be fabricated to the original, about if access/changes are all-important the examiner accept to apperceive what they are accomplishing and to almanac their actions.

Live acquisition

Principle 2 aloft may accession the question: In what bearings would changes to a suspect’s computer by a computer argumentative examiner be necessary? Traditionally, the computer argumentative examiner would accomplish a archetype (or acquire) admonition from a accessory which is angry off. A write-blocker[4] would be acclimated to accomplish an exact bit for bit archetype [5] of the aboriginal accumulator medium. The examiner would plan again from this copy, abrogation the aboriginal demonstrably unchanged.

However, sometimes it is not accessible or adorable to about-face a computer off. It may not be accessible to about-face a computer off if accomplishing so would aftereffect in ample banking or added accident for the owner. It may not be adorable to about-face a computer off if accomplishing so would beggarly that potentially admired affirmation may be lost. In both these affairs the computer argumentative examiner would charge to backpack out a ‘live acquisition’ which would absorb active a baby affairs on the doubtable computer in adjustment to archetype (or acquire) the abstracts to the examiner’s harder drive.

By active such a affairs and adhering a destination drive to the doubtable computer, the examiner will accomplish changes and/or additions to the accompaniment of the computer which were not present afore his actions. Such accomplishments would abide acceptable as continued as the examiner recorded their actions, was acquainted of their appulse and was able to explain their actions.

Stages of an examination

For the purposes of this commodity the computer argumentative assay activity has been disconnected into six stages. Although they are presented in their accustomed archival order, it is all-important during an assay to be flexible. For example, during the assay date the examiner may accretion a new advance which would accreditation added computers getting advised and would beggarly a acknowledgment to the appraisal stage.


Forensic address is an important and occasionally abandoned date in the assay process. In bartering computer forensics it can awning educating audience about arrangement preparedness; for example, argumentative examinations will accommodate stronger affirmation if a server or computer’s congenital auditing and logging systems are all switched on. For examiners there are abounding areas breadth above-mentioned organisation can help, including training, approved testing and assay of software and equipment, acquaintance with legislation, ambidextrous with abrupt issues (e.g., what to do if adolescent chicanery is present during a bartering job) and ensuring that your on-site accretion kit is complete and in alive order.


The appraisal date includes the accepting of bright instructions, accident assay and allocation of roles and resources. Accident assay for law administration may awning an appraisal on the likelihood of concrete blackmail on entering a suspect’s acreage and how best to accord with it. Bartering organisations aswell charge to be acquainted of bloom and assurance issues, while their appraisal would aswell awning reputational and banking risks on accepting a authentic project.


The capital allotment of the accumulating stage, acquisition, has been alien above. If accretion is to be agitated out on-site rather than in a computer argumentative class again this date would awning identifying, accepting and documenting the scene. Interviews or affairs with cadre who may authority admonition which could be accordant to the assay (which could awning the end users of the computer, and the administrator and getting amenable for accouterment computer services) would usually be agitated out at this stage. The ‘bagging and tagging’ assay aisle would alpha actuality by sealing any abstracts in altered tamper-evident bags. Consideration aswell needs to be accustomed to deeply and cautiously alteration the actual to the examiner’s laboratory.


Analysis depends on the specifics of anniversary job. The examiner usually provides acknowledgment to the applicant during assay and from this chat the assay may yield a altered aisle or be narrowed to specific areas. Assay accept to be accurate, thorough, impartial, recorded, repeatable and completed aural the time-scales accessible and assets allocated. There are countless accoutrement accessible for computer forensics analysis. It is our assessment that the examiner should use any apparatus they feel adequate with as continued as they can absolve their choice. The capital requirements of a computer argumentative apparatus is that it does what it is meant to do and the alone way for examiners to be abiding of this is for them to consistently assay and calibrate the accoutrement they use afore assay takes place. Dual-tool assay can affirm aftereffect candor during assay (if with apparatus ‘A’ the examiner finds achievement ‘X’ at breadth ‘Y’, again apparatus ‘B’ should carbon these results.)


This date usually involves the examiner bearing a structured address on their findings, acclamation the credibility in the antecedent instructions forth with any consecutive instructions. It would aswell awning any added admonition which the examiner deems accordant to the investigation. The address accept to be accounting with the end clairvoyant in mind; in abounding cases the clairvoyant of the address will be non-technical, so the analogue should accede this. The examiner should aswell be able to participate in affairs or blast conferences to altercate and busy on the report.


Along with the address stage, the assay date is generally abandoned or disregarded. This may be due to the perceived costs of accomplishing plan that is not billable, or the charge ‘to get on with the next job’. However, a assay date congenital into anniversary assay can advice save money and accession the akin of superior by authoritative approaching examinations added able and time effective. A assay of an assay can be simple, quick and can activate during any of the aloft stages. It may awning a basal ‘what went amiss and how can this be improved’ and a ‘what went able-bodied and how can it be congenital into approaching examinations’. Acknowledgment from the instructing affair should aswell be sought. Any acquaint learnt from this date should be activated to the next assay and fed into the address stage.

Issues adverse computer forensics

The issues adverse computer forensics examiners can be torn down into three ample categories: technical, acknowledged and administrative.

Encryption – Encrypted files or harder drives can be absurd for board to appearance after the actual key or password. Examiners should accede that the key or countersign may be stored abroad on the computer or on addition computer which the doubtable has had admission to. It could aswell abide in the airy anamnesis of a computer (known as RAM [6] which is usually absent on computer shut-down; addition acumen to accede appliance reside accretion techniques as categorical above.

Increasing accumulator space – Accumulator media holds anytime greater amounts of abstracts which for the examiner agency that their assay computers charge to accept acceptable processing adeptness and accessible accumulator to calmly accord with analytic and analysing astronomic amounts of data.

New technologies – Accretion is an ever-changing area, with new hardware, software and operating systems getting consistently produced. No individual computer argumentative examiner can be an able on all areas, admitting they may frequently be accustomed to analyse something which they haven’t dealt with before. In adjustment to accord with this situation, the examiner should be able and able to assay and agreement with the behaviour of new technologies. Networking and administration adeptness with added computer argumentative examiners is aswell actual advantageous in this account as it’s acceptable anyone abroad may accept already encountered the aforementioned issue.

Anti-forensics – Anti-forensics is the convenance of attempting to baffle computer argumentative analysis. This may awning encryption, the over-writing of abstracts to accomplish it unrecoverable, the modification of files’ meta-data and book obfuscation (disguising files). As with encryption above, the affirmation that such methods accept been acclimated may be stored abroad on the computer or on addition computer which the doubtable has had admission to. In our experience, it is actual attenuate to see anti-forensics accoutrement acclimated accurately and frequently abundant to absolutely abstruse either their attendance or the attendance of the affirmation they were acclimated to hide.

Legal issues

Legal arguments may abash or abstract from a computer examiner’s findings. An archetype actuality would be the ‘Trojan Defence’. A Trojan is a section of computer cipher bearded as something amiable but which has a hidden and awful purpose. Trojans accept abounding uses, and awning key-logging [7], uploading and downloading of files and accession of viruses. A advocate may be able to altercate that accomplishments on a computer were not agitated out by a user but were automatic by a Trojan after the user’s knowledge; such a Trojan Defence has been auspiciously acclimated even if no trace of a Trojan or added awful cipher was begin on the suspect’s computer. In such cases, a competent opposing lawyer, supplied with affirmation from a competent computer argumentative analyst, should be able to abolish such an argument.

Accepted standards – There are a deluge of standards and guidelines in computer forensics, few of which arise to be universally accepted. This is due to a bulk of affidavit including standard-setting bodies getting angry to authentic legislations, standards getting aimed either at law administration or bartering forensics but not at both, the authors of such standards not getting accustomed by their peers, or top abutting fees black practitioners from participating.

Fitness to practice – In abounding jurisdictions there is no condoning physique to analysis the adequacy and candor of computer forensics professionals. In such cases anyone may present themselves as a computer argumentative expert, which may aftereffect in computer argumentative examinations of ambiguous superior and a abrogating appearance of the profession as a whole.

Resources and added reading

There does not arise to be a abundant bulk of actual accoutrement computer forensics which is aimed at a non-technical readership. About the afterward links at links at the basal of this page may prove to be of absorption prove to be of interest:


1. Hacking: modifying a computer in way which was not originally advised in adjustment to account the hacker’s goals.

2. Abnegation of Account attack: an attack to anticipate accepted users of a computer arrangement from accepting admission to that system’s admonition or services.

3. Meta-data: at a basal akin meta-data is abstracts about data. It can be anchored aural files or stored evidently in a abstracted book and may accommodate admonition about the file’s author, format, conception date and so on.

4. Write blocker: a accouterments accessory or software appliance which prevents any abstracts from getting adapted or added to the accumulator average getting examined.

5. Bit copy: bit is a abbreviating of the appellation ‘binary digit’ and is the axiological assemblage of computing. A bit archetype refers to a consecutive archetype of every bit on a accumulator medium, which includes areas of the average ‘invisible’ to the user.

6. RAM: Random Admission Memory. RAM is a computer’s acting workspace and is volatile, which agency its capacity are absent if the computer is powered off.

7. Key-logging: the recording of keyboard ascribe giving the adeptness to apprehend a user’s typed passwords, emails and added arcane information.